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2015꿼Ӣword

ʱ䣺2014-12-29 09:25:40  Դ  ߣwlj

  

2015꿼Ӣword

Section Use of English

DirectionsRead the following textChoose the best wordsfor each numbered blank and markA,B,C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1.10 points

In our contemporary culture, the prospect of communicating with -- or even looking at -- a stranger is virtually unbearable. Everyone around us seems to agree by the way they fiddle with their phones, even without a 1 underground.

It's a sad reality -- our desire to avoid interacting with other human beings -- because there's 2 to be gained from talking to the stranger standing by you. But you wouldn't know it, 3 into your phone. This universal armor sends the 4 : "Please don't approach me."

What is it that makes us feel we need to hide 5 our screens?

One answer is fear, according to Jon Wortmann, executive mental coach. We fear rejection, or that our innocent social advances will be 6 as "creepy,". We fear we'll be 7 . We fear we'll be disruptive. Strangers are inherently 8 to us, so we are more likely to feel 9 when communicating with them compared with our friends and acquaintances. To avoid this anxiety, we 10 to our phones. "Phones become our security blanket," Wortmann says. "They are our happy glasses that protect us from what we perceive is going to be more 11 ."

But once we rip off the bandaid, tuck our smartphones in our pockets and look up, it doesn't 12 so bad. In one 2011 experiment, behavioral scientists Nicholas Epley and Juliana Schroeder asked commuters to do the unthinkable: Start a 13 . They had Chicago train commuters talk to their fellow 14 . "When Dr. Epley and Ms. Schroeder asked other people in the same train station to 15 how they would feel after talking to a stranger, the commuters thought their 16 would be more pleasant if they sat on their own," the New York Times summarizes. Though the participants didn't expect a positive experience, after they 17 with the experiment, "not a single person reported having been snubbed."

18 , these commutes were reportedly more enjoyable compared with those sans communication, which makes absolute sense, 19 human beings thrive off of social connections. It's that 20 : Talking to strangers can make you feel connected.

1. [A] ticket [B] permit [C] signall [D] record

2. [A] nothing [B] link [C] another [D] much

3. [A] beaten [B] guided [C] plugged [D] brought

4. [A] message [B] cede [C] notice [D] sign

5. [A] under [B] beyond [C] behind [D] from

6. [A] misinterprete [B] misapplied [C] misadjusted [D] mismatched

7. [A] fired [B] judged [C] replaced [D] delayed

8. [A] unreasonable [B] ungreatful [C] unconventional [D] unfamiliar

9. [A] comfortable [B] anxious [C] confident [D] angry

10. [A] attend [B] point [C] take [D] turn

11. [A] dangerous [B] mysterious [C] violent [D] boring

12. [A] hurt [B] resist [C] bend [D] decay

13. [A] lecture [B] conversation [C] debate [D] negotiation

14. [A] trainees [B] employees [C] researchers [D] passengers

15. [A] reveal [B] choose [C] predictl [D] design

16. [A] voyage [B] flight [C] walk [D] ride

17. [A] went through [B] did away [C] caught up [D] put up

18. [A] In turn [B] In particular [C] In fact [D] In consequence

19. [A] unless [B] since [C] if [D] whereas

20. [A] funny [B] simple [C] logical [D] rare

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text 1

A new study suggests that contrary to most surveys, people are actually more stressed at home that at work. Researchers measured peoples cortisol, which is stress marker, while they were at work and while they were at home and found it higher at what is supposed to be a place of refuge.

Further contradicting conventional wisdom, we found that women as well as men have lower levels of stress at work than at home, writes one of the researchers, Sarah Damaske. In fact women even say they feel better at work, she notes, It is men, not women, who report being happier at home than at work. Another surprise is that the findings hold true for both those with children and without, but more so for nonparents. This is why people who work outside the home have better health.

What the study doesnt measure is whether people are still doing work when theyre at home, whether it is household work or work brought home from the office. For many men, the end of the workday is a time to kick back. For women who stay home, they never get to leave the office. And for women who work outside the home, they often are playing catch-up-with-household tasks. With the blurring of roles, and the fact that the home front lags well behind the workplace in making adjustments for working women, its not surprising that women are more stressed at home.

But its not just a gender thing. At work, people pretty much know what theyre supposed to be doing: working, making money, doing the tasks they have to do in order to draw an income. The bargain is very pure: Employee puts in hours of physical or mental labor and employee draws out life-sustaining moola.

On the home front, however, people have no such clarity. Rare is the household in which the division of labor is so clinically and methodically laid out. There are a lot of tasks to be done, there are inadequate rewards for most of them. Your home colleagues- your family- have no clear rewards for their labor; they need to be talked into it, or if theyre teenagers, threatened with complete removal of all electronic devices. Plus, theyre your family. You cannot fire your family. You never really get to go home from home.

So its not surprising that people are more stressed at home. Not only are the tasks apparently infinite, the co- workers are much harder to motivate.

21. According to Paragraph 1, most previous surveys found that home_______

[A] was an unrealistic place for relaxation

[B] generated more stress than the workplace

[C] was an ideal place for stress measurement

[D] offered greater relaxation than the workplace

22. According to Damaske, who are likely to be the happiest at home?

[A] Working mothers

[B] Childless husbands

[C] Childless wives

[D] Working fathers

23. The blurring of working womens roles refers to the fact thay_______

[A] they are both bread winners and housewives

[B] their home is also a place for kicking back

[C] there is often much housework left behind

[D] it is difficult for them to leave their office

24. The word moola(Line 4, Para 4) most probably means_______

[A] energy

[B] skills

[C] earnings

[D] nutrition

25. The home front differs from the workplace in that_______

[A] home is hardly a cozier working environment

[B] division of labor at home is seldom clear-cut

[C] household tasks are generally more motivating

[D] family labor is often adequately rewarded

Text2

For years, studies have found that first-generation college students- those who do not have a parent with a college degree- lag other students on a range of education achievement factors. Their grades are lower and their dropout rates are higher. But since such students are most likely to advance economically if they succeed in higher education, colleges and universities have pushed for decades to recruit more of them. This has created a paradox in that recruiting first- generation students, but then watching many of them fail, means that higher education has continued to reproduce and widen, rather than close ab achievement gap based on social class, according to the depressing beginning of a paper forthcoming in the journal Psychological Science.

But the article is actually quite optimistic, as it outlines a potential solution to this problem, suggesting that an approach (which involves a one-hour, next-to-no-cost program) can close 63 percent of the achievement gap (measured by such factors as grades) between first-generation and other students.

The authors of the paper are from different universities, and their findings are based on a study involving 147 students ( who completed the project) at an unnamed private university. First generation was defined as not having a parent with a four-year college degree. Most of the first-generation students(59.1 percent) were recipients of Pell Grants, a federal grant for undergraduates with financial need, while this was true only for 8.6 percent of the students wit at least one parent with a four-year degree.

Their thesis- that a relatively modest intervention could have a big impact- was based on the view that first-generation students may be most lacking not in potential but in practical knowledge about how to deal with the issues that face most college students. They cite past research by several authors to show that this is the gap that must be narrowed to close the achievement gap.

Many first- generation students struggle to navigate the middle-class culture of higher education, learn the rules of the game, and take advantage of college resources, they write. And this becomes more of a problem when collages dont talk about the class advantage and disadvantages of different groups of students. Because US colleges and universities seldom acknowledge how social class can affect students educational experience, many first-generation students lack sight about why they are struggling and do not understand how students like them can improve.

26. Recruiting more first- generation students has_______

[A] reduced their dropout rates

[B] narrowed the achievement gao 

[C] missed its original purpose

[D] depressed college students

27. The author of the research article are optimistic because_______

[A] the problem is solvable

[B] their approach is costless

[C] the recruiting rate has increased

[D] their finding appeal to students

28. The study suggests that most first- generation students______

[A] study at private universities

[B] are from single-parent families

[C] are in need of financial support

[D] have failed their collage

29. The author of the paper believe that first-generation students_______

[A] are actually indifferent to the achievement gap

[B] can have a potential influence on other students

[C] may lack opportunities to apply for research projects

[D] are inexperienced in handling their issues at college

30. We may infer from the last paragraph that_______

[A] universities often reject the culture of the middle-class

[B] students are usually to blame for their lack of resources

[C] social class greatly helps enrich educational experiences

[D]colleges are partly responsible for the problem in question

Text3

Even in traditional offices, the lingua franca of corporate America has gotten much more emotional and much more right-brained than it was 20 years ago, said Harvard Business School professor Nancy Koehn. She started spinning off examples. If you and I parachuted back to Fortune 500 companies in 1990, we would see much less frequent use of terms like journey, mission, passion. There were goals, there were strategies, there were objectives, but we didnt talk about energy; we didnt talk about passion.

Koehn pointed out that this new era of corporate vocabulary is very team-orientedand not by coincidence. Lets not forget sportsin male-dominated corporate America, its still a big deal. Its not explicitly conscious; its the idea that Im a coach, and youre my team, and were in this together. There are lots and lots of CEOs in very different companies, but most think of themselves as coaches and this is their team and they want to win.

These terms are also intended to infuse work with meaningand, as Khurana points out, increase allegiance to the firm. You have the importation of terminology that historically used to be associated with non-profit organizations and religious organizations: Terms like vision, values, passion, and purpose, said Khurana.

This new focus on personal fulfillment can help keep employees motivated amid increasingly loud debates over work-life balance. The mommy wars of the 1990s are still going on today, prompting arguments about why women still cant have it all and books like Sheryl Sandbergs Lean In, whose title has become a buzzword in its own right. Terms like unplug, offline, life-hack, bandwidth, and capacity are all about setting boundaries between the office and the home. But if your work is your passion, youll be more likely to devote yourself to it, even if that means going home for dinner and then working long after the kids are in bed.

But this seems to be the irony of office speak: Everyone makes fun of it, but managers love it, companies depend on it, and regular people willingly absorb it. As Nunberg said, You can get people to think its nonsense at the same time that you buy into it. In a workplace thats fundamentally indifferent to your life and its meaning, office speak can help you figure out how you relate to your workand how your work defines who you are.

31. According to Nancy Koehn,office language has become_____

[A] more emotional

[B] more objective

[C] less energetic

[D] less strategic

32. team-oriented corporate vocabulary is closely related to_______

[A] historical incidents

[B] gender difference

[C] sports culture

[D] athletic executives

33.Khurana believes that the importation of terminology aims to______

[A] revive historical terms

[B] promote company image

[C] foster corporate cooperation

[D] strengthen employee loyalty

34.It can be inferred that Lean In________

[A] voices for working women

[B] appeals to passionate workaholics

[C] triggers dcbates among mommies

[D] praises motivated employees

35.Which of the following statements is true about office speak?

[A] Managers admire it but avoid it

[B] Linguists believe it to be nonsense

[C] Companies find it to be fundamental

[D] Regular people mock it but accept it

Text 4

Many people talked of the 288,000 new jobs the Labor Department reported for June, along with the drop in the unemployment rate to 6.1 percent, as good news. And they were right. For now it appears the economy is creating jobs at a decent pace. We still have a long way to go to get back to full employment, but at least we are now finally moving forward at a faster pace.

However, there is another important part of the jobs picture that was largely overlooked. There was a big jump in the number of people who report voluntarily working part-time. This figure is now 830,000(4.4 percent) above its year ago level.

Before explaining the connection to the Obamacare, it is worth making an important distinction. Many people who work part-time jobs actually want full-time jobs. They take part-time work because this is all they can get. An increase in involuntary part-time in June, but the general direction has been down. Involuntary part-time employment is still far higher than before the recession, but it is down by 640,000(7.9 percent) from its year ago level.

We know the difference between voluntary and involuntary part-time employment because people tell us. The survey used by the Labor Department asks people if they worked less than 35 hours in the reference week. If the answer is yes, they are classified as working part-time. They survey then asks whether they worked less than 35 hours in that week because they wanted to work less than full time or because they had no choice. They are only classified as voluntary part-time workers if they tell the survey taker they chose to work less than 35 hours a week.

The issue of voluntary part-time relates to Obamacare because one of the main purposes was to allow people to get insurance outside of employment. For many people, especially those with serious health conditions of family members with serious health conditions, before Obamacare the only way to get insurance was through a job that provided health insurance.

However, Obamacare has allowed more than 12 million people to either get insurance through Medicaid or the exchanges. These are people who may previously have felt the need to get a full-time job that provided insurance in order to cover themselves and their families. With Obamacare there is no longer a link between employment and insurance.

36. Which part of the jobs picture was neglected?

A. The prospect of a thriving job market.

B. The increase of voluntary part-time jobs.

C. The possibility of full employment.

D. The acceleration of job creation.

37. Many people work part-time because they

A. prefer part-time jobs to full-time jobs

B. feel that is enough to make ends meet

C. cannot get their hands on full-time jobs

D. havent seen the weakness of the market

38. Involuntary part-time employment in the US

A. is harder to acquire than one year ago

B. shows a general tendency of decline

C. satisfies the real need of the jobless

D. is lower than before the recession

39. It can be learned that with Obamacare, __________.

A. it is no longer easy for part-timers to get insurance

B. employment is no longer a precondition to get insurance

C. it is still challenging to get insurance for family members

D. full-time employment is still essential for insurance.

40. The text mainly discusses____________.

A. employment in the US

B. part-timer classification

C. insurance through Medicaid

D. Obamacares trouble

Part B

DirectionsRead the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list A-G for each numbered paragraph (41-45).There are two extra subheadings which you do not need to use. Make your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

[A]You are not alone

[B]Experience helps you grow

[C]Pave your own unique path

[D]Most of your fears are unreal

[E]Think about the present moment

[F]Dont fear responsibility for your life

[G]There are many things to be grateful for

Some Old Truths to Help You Overcome Tough Times

Unfortunately, life is not a bed of roses. We are going through life facing sad experiences. Moreover, we are grieving various kinds of loss: a friendship, romantic relationship or a house .Hard times may hold you down at what usually seems like the most inopportune time, but you should remember that they wont last forever.

When our time of mourning is over, we press forward, stronger with a greater understanding and respect for life. Furthermore, these losses make us mature and eventually move us toward future opportunities for growth and happiness. I want to share these old truths Ive learned along the way.

41.________________________

Fear is both useful and harmful. This normal human reaction is used to protect us by signaling danger and preparing us to deal with it. Unfortunately, people create inner barriers with a help of exaggerating fears. My favorite actor Will Smith once said, Fear is not real. It is a product of thoughts you create. Do not misunderstand me. Danger is very real. But fear is a choice. I do completely agree that fears are just the product of our luxuriant imagination.

42._________________________

If you are surrounded by problems and cannot stop thinking about the past, try to focus on the present moment. Many of us are weighed down by the past or anxious about the future. You may feel guilt over your past, but you are poisoning the present with the things and circumstances you cannot change. Value the present moment and remember how fortunate you are to be alive. Enjoy the beauty of the world around and keep the eyes open to see the possibilities before you. Happiness is not a point of future and not a moment from the past, but a mindset that can be designed into the present.

43._________________________

Sometimes it is easy to feel bad because you are going through tough times. You can be easily caught up by life problems that you forget to pause and appreciate the things you have. Only strong people prefer to smile and value their life instead of crying and complaining about something.

44._________________________

No matter how isolated you might feel and how serious the situation is, you should always remember that you are not alone. Try to keep in mind that almost everyone respects and wants to help you if you are trying to make a good change in your life, especially your dearest and nearest people. You may have a circle of friends who provide constant good humor, help and companionship. If you have no friends or relatives, try to participate in several online communities, full of people who are always willing to share advice and encouragement.

45.________________________

Today many people find it difficult to trust their own opinion and seek balance by gaining objectivity from external sources. This way you devalue your opinion and show that you are incapable of managing your own life. When you are struggling to achieve something important you should believe in yourself and be sure that your decision is the best. You live in your skin, think your own thoughts, have your own values and make your own choices.

Section III Translation

46. Directions:

Translate the following text from English into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)

Think about driving a route thats very familiar. It could be your commute to work, a trip into town or the way home. Whichever it is, you know every twist and turn like the back of your hand. On these sorts of trips its easy to zone out from the actual driving and pay little attention to the passing scenery. The consequence is that you perceive that the trip has taken less time than it actually has.

This is the well-travelled road effect: people tend to underestimate the time it takes to travel a familiar route.

The effect is caused by the way we allocate our attention. When we travel down a well-known route, because we dont have to concentrate much, time seems to flow more quickly. And afterwards, when we come to think back on it, we cant remember the journey well because we didnt pay much attention to it. So we assume it was shorter.

Section IV Writing

Part A

47. Directions:

Suppose your university is going to host a summer camp for high school students. Write a notice

(1) briefly introduce the camp activities, and

(2) call for volunteers

You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET.

Do not use your name or the name of your university.

Do not write your address.(10 points)

Part B

48. Directions:

Write an essay based on the following chart. In your writing, your should

(1) interpret the chart,and

(2) give your comment.

You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET.(15 points)

 

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